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More detailed explanations of the building science concepts and foundational design principles underlying the BSC App are provided by the reference book: Jens Pohl (2009, second edition) ; The Emergence of Building Science: Historical Roots, Concepts, and Application; Collaborative Agent Design Research Center (CADRC), Cal Poly , San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. The book is available for free download either by chapter or in its entirety.

The Emergence of Building Science Book

The Emergence of Building Science

Provided as a more comprehensive and detailed reach-back source of information on the environmental subject matter areas of building science, namely: the thermal environment, natural and artificial lighting, noise control and acoustics, and energy conservation.

The Emergence of Building Science

Historical Roots, Concepts, and Application

Jens Pohl, Ph.D.

Professor of Architecture

College of Architecture and Environmental Design

California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly)

San Luis Obispo, California

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Technical Underpinnings in Mathematics and Physics

1.1       Linear Equations    

            1.1.1       What are Unknown Quantities?    

            1.1.2       Simultaneous Equations with Two Unknowns

1.2       Some Statistical Methods    

            1.2.1       Ordering Data    

            1.2.2       The Normal Distribution Curve    

            1.2.3       The Standard Deviation of a Sample    

            1.2.4       The Standard Deviation of the Population    

            1.2.5       The Coefficient of Variation    

            1.2.6       What is a Standard Error?    

            1.2.7       What are Confidence Limits?    

            1.2.8       Predicting the Strength of Concrete    

1.3       Foundational Concepts in Physics   

            1.3.1       Units of Measurement    

            1.3.2       Temperature Scales and Thermometers    

            1.3.3       Objective and Subjective Measurements    

            1.3.4       Stress and Strain    

            1.3.5       Black Body Radiation    

2.1       Heat Transfer between Body and Environment 

2.2       Some Physiological Considerations     

2.3       More about Individual Differences   

2.4       Measurement of the Thermal Environment      

2.5       Selecting the Appropriate Index      

2.6       Thermal Comfort Factors    

2.7       The Psychrometric Chart

2.8       Questions Relating to Chapter 2   

3.1       How important is the Thermal Environment?

3.2       Thermal Building Design Strategies  

3.3       Importance of Sunshading Devices    

3.4       Radiation through Roofs   

3.5       Sun Position and Orientation   

3.6       Solar Design Steps     

3.7       Achieving Air Movement Naturally  

3.8       Removal of Heat by Ventilation   

3.9       Questions Relating to Chapter 3      

4.1       The Need for Energy Conservation      

4.2       How is Heat Transferred?      

4.3       Steady State Heat Transfer Assumptions         

4.4       The Nature of Thermal Conductivity      

4.5       Building Heat Flow Calculations     

4.6       Energy Conservation Standards       

4.7       Insulation and Insulating Materials       

4.8       The Cause and Nature of Condensation       

4.9       Heat Flow Calculation Example   

4.10     Questions Relating to Chapter 4      

5.1       Opportunities and Limitations     

            5.1.1       Solar Energy Incentive Programs

            5.1.2       Availability of Solar Energy     

5.2       Two Types of Solar Collection Systems       

5.3       Flat Plate Solar Collectors     

5.4       Solar Heat Storage Systems      

5.5       Sizing a Solar Hot Water Service      

5.6       The Degree-Day Concept      

5.7       Sizing a Solar Space Heating System      

5.8       Integrating Building Structure and Heat Storage

5.9       Passive Solar Systems

            5.9.1       Direct Gain Systems

            5.9.2       Trombe System

            5.9.3       Sunspace System

            5.9.4       Roof Pond System

            5.9.5       Radiative Cooling of Water Ponds

5.10     Photovoltaic Systems    

5.11     Questions Relating to Chapter 5    

6.1       Some Historical Background    

6.2       Light Speed and Color     

6.3       What is Light?   

6.4       Light Viewed as Mechanical Waves       

6.5       Measurement Units of Light    

6.6       Light Reflection, Absorption, and Transmission    

6.7       The Visual Field and Adaptation Level     

6.8       Perceptional Constancy    

6.9       The Nature of Glare    

6.10     Questions Relating to Chapter 6    

7.1      Variability of Daylight  

7.2      Quality of Daylight and Color   

7.3      How Much Daylight is Available?   

7.4      Measurement of Daylight   

7.5      Model Analysis 

7.6      The Daylight Factor Concept    

7.7      Glare from Daylight   

7.8      Questions Relating to Chapter 7      

8.1       Definition of Terms  

8.2       Creation of Light Artificially 

8.3       Functions of the Luminaire   

8.4       Light Fixtures   

8.5       The Lumen Method of Lighting Design   

8.6       The Room Cavity Ratio    

8.7       The PSALI Concept

8.8       Lighting Power Budgets    

8.9       Questions Relating to Chapter 8     

9.1       What is Sound?    

9.2       Objective Units of Sound Measurement  

9.3       Addition, Deletion, and Reduction of Sound Pressure Levels

9.4       The Concept of Octave Bands       

9.5       Subjective Units of Sound Measurement    

9.6       How Do We Hear Sound?     

9.7       Hearing Conservation in the Environment     

9.8       Sound Measurement Instruments     

9.9       Questions Relating to Chapter 9    

10.1    Reflection and Diffraction of Sound    

10.2    Absorption of Sound

           10.2.1     Porous Absorbers 

           10.2.2     Panel Absorbers   

           10.2.3     Acoustic Ceilings 

           10.2.4     Volume Absorbers    

10.3    Speech Communication   

           10.3.1     Speech Interference Level     

           10.3.2     Background Noise     

           10.3.3     Masking Sound Principles    

           10.3.4     Artificial Sound Blankets   

           10.3.5     Open-Plan School Buildings     

10.4    Halls for Speech and Music     

           10.4.1     Audience Absorption  

           10.4.2     Psycho-Acoustic Considerations     

           10.4.3     The Concept of Reverberation Time     

           10.4.4     Concert Halls  

           10.4.5     The Sydney Opera House     

10.5    Questions Relating to Chapter 10         

11.1    Noise Control by Legislation   

11.2    Air-Borne and Solid-Borne Sound      

11.3    Air-Borne Noise Insulation   

           11.3.1     Single-Leaf Panels and the Mass Law      

           11.3.2     Sandwich Barriers and Multi-Leaf Walls    

           11.3.3     Sound Transmission Class (STC)      

11.4    Solid-Borne Noise Insulation   

           11.4.1     Impact Insulation Class (IIC)    

           11.4.2     Methods of Solid-Borne Noise Insulation     

11.5    Noise Insulation in Practice     

11.6    Common Noise Sources   

           11.6.1     Ventilation Noise  

           11.6.2     Industrial Process Noise    

           11.6.3     Residential Noise   

           11.6.4     Vehicular Traffic Noise  

           11.6.5     Trees and Shrubs      

           11.6.6     Aircraft Noise

11.7    Questions Relating to Chapter 11        

12.1    Human Resistance to Change     

12.2    Discernable Trends     

           12.2.1     The Home as a Workplace    

           12.2.2     Recycling and Waste Management       

           12.2.3     Water as a Precious Commodity       

           12.2.4     Energy Self-Sufficiency   

           12.2.5     A Healthy Building Environment    

           12.2.6     Quality of Life Expectations

12.3    Fundamental Concepts and Definition of Terms

           12.3.1     Sustainability  

           12.3.2     Ecological Design  

           12.3.3     Eco-Efficiency  

           12.3.4     Ecological Footprint and Rucksack     

           12.3.5     Life-Cycle Assessment and Costing       

           12.3.6     Embodied Energy   

           12.3.7     Factors 4 and 10  

           12.3.8     Green High-Performance Buildings     

12.4    Assessment of High-Performance Buildings

           12.4.1     Assessment Framework Concepts and Principles

           12.4.2     The LEED Assessment Framework       

12.5    Energy Design Strategies     

           12.5.1     Passive Building Design Strategies       

           12.5.2     The Building Envelope   

           12.5.3     Hot Water Systems   

           12.5.4     Daylight and Artificial Lighting   

           12.5.5     Active Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation      

12.6    Water Conservation Strategies     

           12.6.1     Water Consumption Goals     

           12.6.2     Lower Flow Rate Fixtures     

           12.6.3     Graywater Systems   

           12.6.4     Rainwater Capture     

12.7    Closed-Loop Building Materials     

           12.7.1     Methods for Determining Embodied Energy

           12.7.2     Deconstruction and Disassembly      

           12.7.3     Selecting Green Building Materials     

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